Swedish Haplogroup Database


Introduction

Welcome !


DNA testing has become increasingly popular to find out more about the family heritage, and more people are now aware of which haplogroups they belong to.

The Swedish Haplogroup Database (SHD) is a free and independent database with the purpose to collect the haplogroups of historical Swedish persons and thus create a tool to include this knowledge into traditional genealogy. The aim is also to present statstics of haplogroup distribution and contribute to the knowledge about pre-historic migration in Scandinavia. Genetic science shows us that all humans originate in Africa and we differ very little from each other.


What is a haplogroup?


In very simple terms, a haplogroup is a grouping and classification of some genetic material handed down from generation to generation, from father to son and from mother to daughter. Through careful scientific studies of this genetic material it has been possible to calculate how the world's population has spread out of Africa, diverging into different ethnicities, and spread around the world.


Haplogroup from a genetic perspective


Haplogroups are associated with the straight paternal and maternal ancestral lines in the family tree and depend on how the tested DNA has been passed down from one generation to another. The "normal" DNA, which create the individuals we are, is a mixture of our parents' contributions. Considering their DNA is diluted with an equal amount unknown DNA from each earlier generation, one realizes soon, there is little similarity between the genes of distant ancestors and your DNA.

Luckily, there are DNA that is not exposed to this mixture. There are two examples of this used in DNA genealogy:

  • Y-DNA is inherited from father to son through the male Y chromosome.
  • mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) is inherited from mother to child.


Consequently, by testing his own DNA a man can identify the haplogroup for all of his ancestors on the straight paternal and maternal sides, and a woman can do the same for her maternal side. The difference comes from the fact that both men and women inherit mtDNA (but it’s just the woman who can pass it on), while women never inherit anything from the male Y chromosome.

Y-DNA is inherited from father, grand father etc.

Y-DNA is inherited to all sons and male descendants.


If a woman would like to find out the haplogroup on her father's side, she must have her father, an uncle, a brother or other male relative on the paternal side DNA tested. This also means that if a woman is considering making a test like this and is only interested in the genealogical information, it can be less costly to send in a sample of a brother instead.

The haplogroup is as previously mentioned the same for all individuals of the same sex in straight lines. This means, with the male example, that any straight male line emanating from any of the men in the subject's straight paternal line is of the same haplogroup as the tested person.

Consequently, a test can define the haplogroup for quite a number of people if you have a pedigree with many branches and many generations.


Haplogroup as an indirect quality control


The SHD database may contribute to a kind of quality control of the family research conducted.

If two people claim to be descended, on either the straight paternal or the straight maternal line, from one person, but a DNA test show them to belong to divergent haplogroups, it is evidence of a flaw somewhere. You do not know where the problem is but you know there is an error. Theoretically it may be possible in individual cases to prove this or that line of research with additional tests on additional descendants in another direct line.

This is a unique way to get a definite answer about the quality of research that may span many hundreds of years back in time!


Two test persons have received different results and can not both come from Person X on the straight paternal line. Something is wrong with the family research!


Haplogroup classification


The humans who found their way out of Africa about 60 000 years ago belonged to something close to one distinct haplogroup. Over time, natural changes occurred, and spontaneous mutations in the DNA emerged with some individuals. These mutations were then transferred down to new generations and differed from the original "Out of Africa" group. In time, additional mutations occured and the differences became larger and larger.

By studying these differences, scientists has created a classification for the Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups, which are assigned a signature in the form of a letter followed by numbers and letters depending on the complexity of the branch.

If you want to know more about this classification and read more about what each of these haplogroups implies, SHD can recommend the Wikipedia article about haplogroups: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup


How do you test yourself?


Today there are several providers of DNA tests. They differ in price and what kind of tests you can get. SHD will not recommend any particular company but lists below those we know can help you find out your Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups. It pays off to look around and compare what you get for your money:

Family Tree DNA
23andMe
Ancestry
MyHeritage
The Genographic Project
iGENEA

When the order is made, a consignment arrives with equipment to take the necessary samples to analyze the DNA. You may have to spit in a tube, chew gum or anything similar which means that cells from the oral cavity is collected and can be transported to the laboratory where the analysis is performed. Delivery times tend to be about one or two months and you get the test results in the form of data on the website where you placed the order. Practice is that you as a client can access the raw data for the analysis and thus can use them for other things than just those that are linked to the provider of the analysis.




Support SHD!






Selected links


Overview

Swedish Society for Genetic Genealogy (SSGG)
International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)
The Genetic Atlas
Eupedia Genetics
PhyloTree (mtDNA)
mtDNA Community
Haplogroup (Wikipedia)
DNA-genealogi (Wiki-Rötter)

Projects

Swedish DNA Project (FTDNA)
Historiskt DNA
Bure DNA
Swedish Nobility DNA Project
Eurogenes Genetic Ancestry Project
Fennoscandia Biographic Project
DODECAD Ancestry Project
Ancestor-Projects.com

Regional projects (FTDNA)

Dalarna
Dalarna (Gagnef)
Dalarna (Kopparberget)
Gotland
Norrbotten (Södra delen)
Norrbotten (Tornedalen)
Skåne/Halland/Blekinge/Bornholm
Småland/Öland
Småland (Tjust)
Södermanland
Värmland
Västerbotten (Skellefteå)
Västerbotten (Umeå)
Västerbotten (Lycksele)
Västergötland/Bohuslän/Dalsland
Västmanland
Ångermanland/Medelpad

Haplogroups (Y-DNA)

FTDNA: G-L497 I1-M253 I1-Z2336/CTS6364 I1-P109 I1-L300 I1-Z140 I1-L1302 I2-M223 N-M178 Q Nordic R1a-M198 R1b-U106 R1b-P312 R1b-U152
All projects...
Facebook: G-M201 G-L497 I1-M253 I1-DF29 I1-P109 I1-L813 I1-L1301 I2-M223 Q-L527

Haplogroups (mtDNA)

FTDNA: H1 H2 H5 I J K U5 U5a U5b V
All projects...
Facebook: I

Tools

YFull (BigY analysis)
semargl.me (Y-DNA)
GEDmatch
DNA.LAND
DNA Tools (dnagedcom.com)
DNA Genealogy Experiment
Genetic Genealogy Kit
Ysearch
Haplogroup Predictor
Haplo-I Subclade Predictor
Mitosearch
mtDNA Haplogroup Analysis (mthap)

Forum

DNA-anor (Facebook)
Genetisk genealogi (Anbytarforum)
A Genetic Genealogy Community
World Families Forums

Testing companies

Family Tree DNA
YSEQ
23andMe
Ancestry DNA
MyHeritage DNA
The Genographic Project
iGENEA












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